在windows中使用vagrant

  • 介绍
vagrant封装linux开发环境,可以统一团队成员的开发环境。封装后,可以linux/windows/mac上运行.
  • 环境
以win8安装vagrant为例子。vagrant需要virtualbox提供虚拟化支持,因此先安装virtualbox。
  • 安装
https://www.vagrantup.com/downloads.html
  • vagrant镜像
vagrant镜像下载地址
 
http://www.vagrantbox.es/
 
以centos-7.0为例子,下载地址
 
https://github.com/tommy-muehle/puppet-vagrant-boxes/releases/download/1.1.0/centos-7.0-x86_64.box
  • 新建目录
D:\vagrant\centos
 
下载后的centos-7.0-x86_64.box放到此目录
  • 添加box
D:\vagrant\centos>vagrant box add --name centos7 .\centos-7.0-x86_64.box
==> box: Box file was not detected as metadata. Adding it directly...
==> box: Adding box 'centos7' (v0) for provider:
    box: Unpacking necessary files from: file://D:/vagrant/centos/centos-7.0-x86
_64.box
    box: Progress: 100% (Rate: 48.1M/s, Estimated time remaining: --:--:--)
==> box: Successfully added box 'centos7' (v0) for 'virtualbox'!
  • 查看box列表
D:\vagrant\centos>vagrant box list
centos7            (virtualbox, 0)
  • 初始化工作目录
D:\vagrant\centos>vagrant init centos7
  • 启动
D:\vagrant\centos>vagrant up
Bringing machine 'default' up with 'virtualbox' provider...
==> default: Clearing any previously set forwarded ports...
==> default: Clearing any previously set network interfaces...
==> default: Preparing network interfaces based on configuration...
    default: Adapter 1: nat
==> default: Forwarding ports...
    default: 22 => 2222 (adapter 1)
==> default: Booting VM...
==> default: Waiting for machine to boot. This may take a few minutes...
    default: SSH address: 127.0.0.1:2222
    default: SSH username: vagrant
    default: SSH auth method: private key
    default: Warning: Connection timeout. Retrying...
==> default: Machine booted and ready!
==> default: Checking for guest additions in VM...
==> default: Mounting shared folders...
    default: /vagrant => D:/vagrant/centos
==> default: Machine already provisioned. Run `vagrant provision` or use the `--
provision`
==> default: flag to force provisioning. Provisioners marked to run always will
still run.
  • 安装ssh工具
 
启动之后,登录系统需要ssh,windows没有ssh,可以安装copssh。安装后,再将ssh.exe路径配置到环境变量中。
 
https://www.itefix.net/content/copssh-free-edition
  • 登录
D:\vagrant\centos>vagrant ssh
cygwin warning:
  MS-DOS style path detected: D:/vagrant/centos/.vagrant/machines/default/virtua
lbox/private_key
  Preferred POSIX equivalent is: /cygdrive/d/vagrant/centos/.vagrant/machines/de
fault/virtualbox/private_key
  CYGWIN environment variable option "nodosfilewarning" turns off this warning.
  Consult the user's guide for more details about POSIX paths:
    http://cygwin.com/cygwin-ug-net/using.html#using-pathnames
Last login: Thu Nov  5 03:10:24 2015 from 10.0.2.2
Welcome to your Vagrant-built virtual machine.
[vagrant@localhost ~]$ 
使用其它工具登录,初始账号是vagrant/vagrant
  • 关闭
D:\vagrant\centos>vagrant halt
==> default: Attempting graceful shutdown of VM...
  • vagrant命令
vagrant up  启动
vagrant halt 普通关闭
vagrant ssh 连接
vagrant suspend 休眠
vagrant reload  重启
vagrant destroy 删除
vagrant box add --name box_name /path/of/box/file #添加本地box
 

salt学习笔记

salt使用主从结构配置、管理、监控远程机器。配置简单,功能强大,是很好的运维管理工具。
  • 准备环境
使用vmware,准备两台虚拟机192.168.8.10和192.168.8.20,192.168.8.10作为master,192.168.820作为minion.
  • master
yum install salt-master   //master
  • 配置master
 
打开/etc/salt/master
 
interface: 192.168.8.10
  • 启动master
service salt-master start
  • minion
yum install salt-minion   //minion
  • 配置minion
 
打开/etc/salt/master
master: 192.168.8.10
  • 启动minion
service salt-minion start
  • 查看minion列表
 
在master上运行
➜  ~  salt-key -L
Accepted Keys:
192.168.124.1
Denied Keys:
Unaccepted Keys:
Rejected Keys:
  • 设置master接受所有minion
salt-key -A
  • 测试minion
salt '*' test.ping
  • 运行命令
salt '192.168.8.20' cmd.run 'df -Th'
  • 管理master与minion关系
salt-key -L 查看key列表
salt-key -D 删除所有key
salt-key -d key 删除单个key
salt-key -A 接受所有key
salt-key -a key 接受单个key
 

去掉ssh初次登录询问yes/no

ssh初次登录某个主机时,出现如下提示
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)?
  • 如何去掉?
打开/etc/ssh/ssh_config,修改以下配置项
#  StrictHostKeyChecking ask
   StrictHostKeyChecking no
 

calmari日志提示OperationalError Permission denied

问题

在fedora22系统中部署calmari,使用calamari-ctl initialize启动calamari后,访问浏览器,浏览器提示500。查看日志文件/var/log/calmari/httpd_error.log,得到以下内容。
[Tue Nov 03 19:42:01.210895 2015] [wsgi:error] [pid 8586] [remote 127.0.0.1:168] mod_wsgi (pid=8586): Exception occurred processing WSGI script '/opt/calamari/conf/calamari.wsgi'.
[Tue Nov 03 19:42:01.210915 2015] [wsgi:error] [pid 8586] [remote 127.0.0.1:168] Traceback (most recent call last):
[Tue Nov 03 19:42:01.210931 2015] [wsgi:error] [pid 8586] [remote 127.0.0.1:168]   File "/opt/calamari/venv/lib/python2.7/site-packages/django/core/handlers/wsgi.py", line 255, in __call__
[Tue Nov 03 19:42:01.211007 2015] [wsgi:error] [pid 8586] [remote 127.0.0.1:168]     response = self.get_response(request)
[Tue Nov 03 19:42:01.211018 2015] [wsgi:error] [pid 8586] [remote 127.0.0.1:168]   File "/opt/calamari/venv/lib/python2.7/site-packages/django/core/handlers/base.py", line 178, in get_response
[Tue Nov 03 19:42:01.211032 2015] [wsgi:error] [pid 8586] [remote 127.0.0.1:168]     response = self.handle_uncaught_exception(request, resolver, sys.exc_info())
[Tue Nov 03 19:42:01.211040 2015] [wsgi:error] [pid 8586] [remote 127.0.0.1:168]   File "/opt/calamari/venv/lib/python2.7/site-packages/django/core/handlers/base.py", line 220, in handle_uncaught_exception
[Tue Nov 03 19:42:01.211050 2015] [wsgi:error] [pid 8586] [remote 127.0.0.1:168]     if resolver.urlconf_module is None:
[Tue Nov 03 19:42:01.211056 2015] [wsgi:error] [pid 8586] [remote 127.0.0.1:168]   File "/opt/calamari/venv/lib/python2.7/site-packages/django/core/urlresolvers.py", line 342, in urlconf_module
[Tue Nov 03 19:42:01.211066 2015] [wsgi:error] [pid 8586] [remote 127.0.0.1:168]     self._urlconf_module = import_module(self.urlconf_name)
[Tue Nov 03 19:42:01.211080 2015] [wsgi:error] [pid 8586] [remote 127.0.0.1:168]   File "/opt/calamari/venv/lib/python2.7/site-packages/django/utils/importlib.py", line 35, in import_module
[Tue Nov 03 19:42:01.211091 2015] [wsgi:error] [pid 8586] [remote 127.0.0.1:168]     __import__(name)
[Tue Nov 03 19:42:01.211097 2015] [wsgi:error] [pid 8586] [remote 127.0.0.1:168]   File "/opt/calamari/venv/lib/python2.7/site-packages/calamari_web-0.1-py2.7.egg/calamari_web/urls.py", line 20, in <module>
[Tue Nov 03 19:42:01.211109 2015] [wsgi:error] [pid 8586] [remote 127.0.0.1:168]     url(r'^api/v1/', include('calamari_rest.urls.v1')),
[Tue Nov 03 19:42:01.211115 2015] [wsgi:error] [pid 8586] [remote 127.0.0.1:168]   File "/opt/calamari/venv/lib/python2.7/site-packages/django/conf/urls/__init__.py", line 25, in include
[Tue Nov 03 19:42:01.211125 2015] [wsgi:error] [pid 8586] [remote 127.0.0.1:168]     urlconf_module = import_module(urlconf_module)
[Tue Nov 03 19:42:01.211131 2015] [wsgi:error] [pid 8586] [remote 127.0.0.1:168]   File "/opt/calamari/venv/lib/python2.7/site-packages/django/utils/importlib.py", line 35, in import_module
[Tue Nov 03 19:42:01.211139 2015] [wsgi:error] [pid 8586] [remote 127.0.0.1:168]     __import__(name)
[Tue Nov 03 19:42:01.211145 2015] [wsgi:error] [pid 8586] [remote 127.0.0.1:168]   File "/opt/calamari/venv/lib/python2.7/site-packages/calamari_rest_api-0.1-py2.7.egg/calamari_rest/urls/v1.py", line 3, in <module>
[Tue Nov 03 19:42:01.211156 2015] [wsgi:error] [pid 8586] [remote 127.0.0.1:168]     import calamari_rest.views.v1
[Tue Nov 03 19:42:01.211162 2015] [wsgi:error] [pid 8586] [remote 127.0.0.1:168]   File "/opt/calamari/venv/lib/python2.7/site-packages/calamari_rest_api-0.1-py2.7.egg/calamari_rest/views/v1.py", line 33, in <module>
[Tue Nov 03 19:42:01.211171 2015] [wsgi:error] [pid 8586] [remote 127.0.0.1:168]     from graphite.render.datalib import fetchData
[Tue Nov 03 19:42:01.211177 2015] [wsgi:error] [pid 8586] [remote 127.0.0.1:168]   File "/opt/calamari/venv/lib/python2.7/site-packages/graphite/render/datalib.py", line 20, in <module>
[Tue Nov 03 19:42:01.211187 2015] [wsgi:error] [pid 8586] [remote 127.0.0.1:168]     from graphite.storage import STORE, LOCAL_STORE
[Tue Nov 03 19:42:01.211192 2015] [wsgi:error] [pid 8586] [remote 127.0.0.1:168]   File "/opt/calamari/venv/lib/python2.7/site-packages/graphite/storage.py", line 7, in <module>
[Tue Nov 03 19:42:01.211201 2015] [wsgi:error] [pid 8586] [remote 127.0.0.1:168]     from graphite.remote_storage import RemoteStore
[Tue Nov 03 19:42:01.211207 2015] [wsgi:error] [pid 8586] [remote 127.0.0.1:168]   File "/opt/calamari/venv/lib/python2.7/site-packages/graphite/remote_storage.py", line 8, in <module>
[Tue Nov 03 19:42:01.211216 2015] [wsgi:error] [pid 8586] [remote 127.0.0.1:168]     from graphite.util import unpickle
[Tue Nov 03 19:42:01.211221 2015] [wsgi:error] [pid 8586] [remote 127.0.0.1:168]   File "/opt/calamari/venv/lib/python2.7/site-packages/graphite/util.py", line 71, in <module>
[Tue Nov 03 19:42:01.211230 2015] [wsgi:error] [pid 8586] [remote 127.0.0.1:168]     defaultUser = User.objects.get(username='default')
[Tue Nov 03 19:42:01.211235 2015] [wsgi:error] [pid 8586] [remote 127.0.0.1:168]   File "/opt/calamari/venv/lib/python2.7/site-packages/django/db/models/manager.py", line 143, in get
[Tue Nov 03 19:42:01.211245 2015] [wsgi:error] [pid 8586] [remote 127.0.0.1:168]     return self.get_query_set().get(*args, **kwargs)
[Tue Nov 03 19:42:01.211251 2015] [wsgi:error] [pid 8586] [remote 127.0.0.1:168]   File "/opt/calamari/venv/lib/python2.7/site-packages/django/db/models/query.py", line 382, in get
[Tue Nov 03 19:42:01.211259 2015] [wsgi:error] [pid 8586] [remote 127.0.0.1:168]     num = len(clone)
[Tue Nov 03 19:42:01.211265 2015] [wsgi:error] [pid 8586] [remote 127.0.0.1:168]   File "/opt/calamari/venv/lib/python2.7/site-packages/django/db/models/query.py", line 90, in __len__
[Tue Nov 03 19:42:01.211272 2015] [wsgi:error] [pid 8586] [remote 127.0.0.1:168]     self._result_cache = list(self.iterator())
[Tue Nov 03 19:42:01.211282 2015] [wsgi:error] [pid 8586] [remote 127.0.0.1:168]   File "/opt/calamari/venv/lib/python2.7/site-packages/django/db/models/query.py", line 301, in iterator
[Tue Nov 03 19:42:01.211290 2015] [wsgi:error] [pid 8586] [remote 127.0.0.1:168]     for row in compiler.results_iter():
[Tue Nov 03 19:42:01.211295 2015] [wsgi:error] [pid 8586] [remote 127.0.0.1:168]   File "/opt/calamari/venv/lib/python2.7/site-packages/django/db/models/sql/compiler.py", line 775, in results_iter
[Tue Nov 03 19:42:01.211305 2015] [wsgi:error] [pid 8586] [remote 127.0.0.1:168]     for rows in self.execute_sql(MULTI):
[Tue Nov 03 19:42:01.211310 2015] [wsgi:error] [pid 8586] [remote 127.0.0.1:168]   File "/opt/calamari/venv/lib/python2.7/site-packages/django/db/models/sql/compiler.py", line 839, in execute_sql
[Tue Nov 03 19:42:01.211318 2015] [wsgi:error] [pid 8586] [remote 127.0.0.1:168]     cursor = self.connection.cursor()
[Tue Nov 03 19:42:01.211324 2015] [wsgi:error] [pid 8586] [remote 127.0.0.1:168]   File "/opt/calamari/venv/lib/python2.7/site-packages/django/db/backends/__init__.py", line 326, in cursor
[Tue Nov 03 19:42:01.211333 2015] [wsgi:error] [pid 8586] [remote 127.0.0.1:168]     cursor = util.CursorWrapper(self._cursor(), self)
[Tue Nov 03 19:42:01.211339 2015] [wsgi:error] [pid 8586] [remote 127.0.0.1:168]   File "/opt/calamari/venv/lib/python2.7/site-packages/django/db/backends/postgresql_psycopg2/base.py", line 182, in _cursor
[Tue Nov 03 19:42:01.211348 2015] [wsgi:error] [pid 8586] [remote 127.0.0.1:168]     self.connection = Database.connect(**conn_params)
[Tue Nov 03 19:42:01.211354 2015] [wsgi:error] [pid 8586] [remote 127.0.0.1:168]   File "/opt/calamari/venv/lib/python2.7/site-packages/psycopg2/__init__.py", line 167, in connect
[Tue Nov 03 19:42:01.211363 2015] [wsgi:error] [pid 8586] [remote 127.0.0.1:168]     conn = _connect(dsn, connection_factory=connection_factory, async=async)
[Tue Nov 03 19:42:01.211376 2015] [wsgi:error] [pid 8586] [remote 127.0.0.1:168] OperationalError: could not connect to server: Permission denied
[Tue Nov 03 19:42:01.211380 2015] [wsgi:error] [pid 8586] [remote 127.0.0.1:168] \tIs the server running on host "localhost" (127.0.0.1) and accepting
[Tue Nov 03 19:42:01.211383 2015] [wsgi:error] [pid 8586] [remote 127.0.0.1:168] \tTCP/IP connections on port 5432?

解决

原因可能是postgresql自身访问限制、用户权限问题,检查后均被排除。查询资料得知,访问权限被selinux限制了。
  • 第一种方法是设置selinux去掉访问限制
sudo setsebool -P httpd_can_network_connect_db on
  • 第二种方法是关闭selinux
编辑/etc/selinux/config,将参数配为禁用,再重启系统。
SELINUX=disabled

相关

getsebool -a 查看selinux控制项
 

 

gettext国际化用法示例

  • 安装gettext
sudo yum install gettext
  • gettext工具
gettext: 进行translate。
 
xgettext: 从程序中抽取调用gettext进行本地化的字符串,生成一份.po结尾的配置文件。
 
msgfmt: 将配置好的本地化配置文件进行转换成gettext使用的格式。
  • 准备demo.py
#encoding=utf-8
import gettext

# demo对应mo文件名,locale为locale目录地址,zh_CN为locale目录下目录名
zh = gettext.translation("demo", "locale", languages=["zh_CN"])
# 激活_()
zh.install(True)
print _("hello world")
  • 生成po文件
 
从程序文件中抽取,使用gettext的字符串,生成po文件
xgettext -L python -o zh_CN.po demo.py
  • 编辑po文件
...
#修改编码为utf-8
"Content-Type: text/plain; charset=utf-8\n"
...

#加上翻译
#: demo.py:6
msgid "hello world"
msgstr "你好,世界"
  • 创建locale目录
mkdir -p locale/zh_CN/LC_MESSAGES
 
* 编译po文件
msgfmt -o ~/locale/zh_CN/LC_MESSAGES/demo.mo zh_CN.po
  • 查看结果
➜  ~  python demo.py
你好,世界
 

净空法师:年轻时候好,是你前生所修的

经上常跟我们说:修财布施得财富。你过去世修得多,这一生得的财富多,发大财;你前生没有修财布施,这一生物质生活一定贫乏。你修法布施,这一生得聪明智慧;你修无畏布施,这一生得健康长寿。
 
有果,一定有因,因果丝毫不爽。一般讲,人在四十岁之前受前生业力影响大,四十岁之前的果报是前生的。
 
有些人年轻时候发达,那个福报是前生的。如果他发达的时候胡作妄为,不干好事情,中年以后逐渐就会衰败,甚至晚年潦倒不堪,非常的可怜,这一生没有修!
 
福报是前生的,这一生要是真正修得好,他的晚年好。所以四十岁以后是今生的力量大,前生的力量很薄弱,所以在四十岁是很大的转变!晚年好,是你今生所修的;年轻时候好,是你前生所修的,我们要明白这个道理。
 

django-restful请求的访问限制

login_required无效

用django的restful写成的请求处理,使用auth模块中装饰器进行访问限制,出现request无user属性的错误.
 
from django.views.generic import View
from django.contrib.auth.decorators import login_required

class TaskQueue(View):
    '''
    执行中的任务
    '''
    def __init__(self):
        self.manager = TaskQueueManager()

    def get(self, request):
        '''
        >> c.get("/task/queue/").content
        '''
        records = self.manager.list()
        return {"success": True, "msg": "", "data": records}

    @login_required
    def delete(self, request):
        '''
        >> c.delete("/task/queue/", json.dumps({"ids": [14]})).content
        '''
        params = json.loads(request.body)
        for id in params["ids"]:
            self.manager.delete(id)
        return {"success": True, "msg": ""}

查找原因

从django里拿到源码,调试后,发现View对象被赋给了装饰器的request.
 
def user_passes_test(test_func, login_url=None, redirect_field_name=REDIRECT_FIELD_NAME):
    """
    Decorator for views that checks that the user passes the given test,
    redirecting to the log-in page if necessary. The test should be a callable
    that takes the user object and returns True if the user passes.
    """

    def decorator(view_func):
        @wraps(view_func, assigned=available_attrs(view_func))
        # view对象传给料request
        def _wrapped_view(request, *args, **kwargs):
            if test_func(request.user):
                return view_func(request, *args, **kwargs)
            path = request.build_absolute_uri()
            resolved_login_url = resolve_url(login_url or settings.LOGIN_URL)
            # If the login url is the same scheme and net location then just
            # use the path as the "next" url.
            login_scheme, login_netloc = urlparse(resolved_login_url)[:2]
            current_scheme, current_netloc = urlparse(path)[:2]
            if ((not login_scheme or login_scheme == current_scheme) and
                    (not login_netloc or login_netloc == current_netloc)):
                path = request.get_full_path()
            from django.contrib.auth.views import redirect_to_login
            return redirect_to_login(
                path, resolved_login_url, redirect_field_name)
        return _wrapped_view
    return decorator


def login_required(function=None, redirect_field_name=REDIRECT_FIELD_NAME, login_url=None):
    """
    Decorator for views that checks that the user is logged in, redirecting
    to the log-in page if necessary.
    """
    actual_decorator = user_passes_test(
        lambda u: u.is_authenticated(),
        login_url=login_url,
        redirect_field_name=redirect_field_name
    )
    if function:
        return actual_decorator(function)
    return actual_decorator

自定义login_required

解决的办法是进行自定义. 将user_passes_test和login_required拿出来,作如下修改
 
...
# 加上self
def _wrapped_view(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
    if test_func(request.user):
        # 加上self
        return view_func(self, request, *args, **kwargs)
...
 

 

如何得到yum的rpm包

  • 安装yum-utils
yum -y install yum-utils
  • 下载rpm
yumdownloader proxychains
得到proxychains-3.1-16.fc22.i686.rpm 、proxychains-3.1-16.fc22.x86_64.rpm两个文件
  • 下载源码
yumdownloader --source proxychains
得到文件proxychains-3.1-16.fc22.src.rpm
 

 

supervisor用法

以什么方式运行进程?将它做成服务,再以"service xxx start/stop"方式运行。
或者以"nohup xxx &"方式运行,需要停止时,先ps获得进程id,然后kill掉.
有什么好点的办法?supervisor正好解决这个问题。
  • 安装
sudo pip install supervisor
  • 创建配置文件
echo_supervisord_conf > /etc/supervisord.conf
  • 取消注释
打开/etc/supervisord.conf,取消下面两行注释,并修改files内容.
[include]
files = /etc/supervisor/*.ini
  • 新建配置目录
新建supervisor目录及test.ini文件
➜  /etc  tree supervisor
supervisor
└── test.ini
  • 配置内容
test.init内容
[program:test]
command=python -m SimpleHTTPServer 8000
directory=/home/wyq/
  • 运行
运行后,在浏览器访问8000端口
supervisord 
 
调试运行,此时需要先将test.ini中directory注释掉.
supervisord -d
supervisor也可指定配置文件
 
supervisord -c xxxx
  • 查看日志
tail -f supervisord.conf
  • 查看运行状态
➜  ~  supervisorctl status
test                             RUNNING   pid 4922, uptime 0:00:07
  • 停止任务
启动与重启参数为start/restart
 
➜  ~  supervisorctl stop test
test: stopped
➜  ~  supervisorctl status   
test                             STOPPED   Jul 09 04:32 PM
  • 停止
supervisorctl shutdown
 

利用setuptools的entry_point参数实现模块动态导入

setuptools提供了entry_points参数,允许在安装时,动态导入模块. 下面是简单示例.
  • 目录结构  
建立如下文件
➜  book  tree
.
├── book
│   ├── add.py
│   ├── __init__.py
│   ├── remove.py
│   └── update.py
└── setup.py
  • add.py内容  
remove.py、update.py与add.py相同
def make():
    print "add"
  • setup.py内容
from setuptools import setup, find_packages

setup(
    name = "book",
    version = "0.1",
    packages = find_packages(),
    entry_points={
        "book":[
            "add=book.add:make",  #add=模块:函数/类
            "update=book.update:make",
            "remove=book.remove:make",
        ]
    }
)
  • 编译成egg包
python setup.py bdist_egg
  • 安装到系统路径  
上面编译命令可以不用,直接用install安装
python setup.py install
  • 用法
from pkg_resources import iter_entry_points

for r in iter_entry_points("book"):
    m = r.load()
    m()